3D Scanning https://dpo.si.edu/tags/3d-scanning en 3D Scanning: The 21st-Century Equivalent to a 19th Century Process https://dpo.si.edu/blog/3d-scanning-21st-century-equivalent-19th-century-process <span>3D Scanning: The 21st-Century Equivalent to a 19th Century Process</span> <div class="field field--name-field-author field--type-string field--label-inline"> <div class="field__label">Author</div> <div class="field__item">Karen Lemmey, Sculpture Curator, Smithsonian American Art Museum</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/users/beauchampjw" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">BeauchampJW</span></span> <span>Fri, 03/27/2015 - 13:52</span> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p><strong><em>Karen Lemmey, American Art's sculpture curator is organizing an installation that will include Hiram Power's </em>Greek Slave<em>, one of the most popular sculptures of the 19th century. As part of her preparation, she is working with <a href="http://3d.si.edu/" target="_blank">Smithsonian X 3D</a>, part of the Institution's Digitization program, to create a 3D model of the </em>Greek Slave<em>. Karen fills us in on the process.</em></strong><span style="font-size:13.0080003738403px"> </span></p> <p>Recently, Smithsonian X 3D, the Smithsonian Digitization Program's efforts to create 3D models of important collection objects, scanned a plaster example of Hiram Powers's <a href="http://americanart.si.edu/collections/search/artwork/?id=20061" target="_blank"><em>Greek Slave</em></a> at the American Art Museum. The data collected from the scan will be used to create a permanent digital record and model of this fragile and unique object offering scholars and the public the chance to study the sculpture in closer detail. But the scan also opens the door for the replication of this sculpture through 3D printing. In fact, the data will be used to create a 3D digital model of the <em>Greek Slave</em> that will be publicly accessible and printable! </p> <p>In many ways, 3D scanning is the twenty first-century equivalent of <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pointing_machine" target="_blank">pointing</a>, the mechanical method used to replicate sculptures in the nineteenth century. Both 3D scanning and pointing precisely measure the surface of the object. The recent scan of the <em>Greek Slave</em> employed three processes: laser scanning, <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Structured-light_3D_scanner" target="_blank">structured light scanning</a>, and DSLR <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photogrammetry" target="_blank">photogrammetry</a>. Hiram Powers meticulously recorded the laborious process of replicating his <em>Greek Slave</em> in his <a href="http://www.aaa.si.edu/collections/container/viewer/-Studio-Memorandum-Etc--284723" target="_blank">Studio Memorandum</a>, preserved in the <a href="http://www.aaa.si.edu/" target="_blank">Archives of American Art</a>. </p> <p>Powers conceived of the <em>Greek Slave</em> as a sculpture to be produced in marble replicas, a common nineteenth-century studio practice. Powers and his contemporaries rarely carved the marble replicas themselves and instead relied on teams of artisans to produce the finished works. After completing a full-scale model of the sculpture in clay, Powers entrusted the model to professional plaster casters (<em>formatori</em>) who created a multi-part plaster mold, which was used to cast a durable plaster version of the sculpture. Master carvers then used the plaster cast as a measuring tool as they translated the composition into marble, covering the surface of the plaster cast with hundreds of pencil marks and metal pins (points) that served as registration marks for the <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pointing_machine" target="_blank">pointing machine</a>. The pointing machine, which resembles a drawing compass, was moved repeatedly from points on the plaster cast to corresponding areas on the block of marble to guide the carver's tools. </p> <p>While the pointing machine was used in marble carving, a reductive process that involves removing mass from a solid block, the data collected from 3D scanning can be used to produce replicas through both reductive methods, such as routing, and additive methods, such as printing. </p> <p>In July 2015, Smithsonian American Art Museum, in collaboration with the United States Patent and Trademark Office, will present <em>Measured Perfection: Hiram Powers's Greek Slave</em>, an exhibition featuring the pointed plaster of the <em>Greek Slave</em> along with sculpting tools, a pointing machine, and other materials exploring the replication of this famed sculpture. </p> <p><span style="font-size:13.0080003738403px">(Reposted with permission from our friends at the </span><a href="http://eyelevel.si.edu/2015/03/3d-scanning-the-21st-century-equivalent-to-a-19th-century-process.html" style="font-size: 13.0080003738403px; line-height: 20.0063056945801px;" target="_blank">Smithsonian American Art Museum blog, <em>Eye Level</em></a><span style="font-size:13.0080003738403px">)</span></p> </div> Fri, 27 Mar 2015 17:52:56 +0000 BeauchampJW 240 at https://dpo.si.edu The Cosmic Buddha https://dpo.si.edu/blog/cosmic-buddha <span>The Cosmic Buddha</span> <div class="field field--name-field-author field--type-string field--label-inline"> <div class="field__label">Author</div> <div class="field__item">J. Keith Wilson, Freer Sackler Galleries of Art</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/users/beauchampjw" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">BeauchampJW</span></span> <span>Tue, 05/13/2014 - 08:03</span> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Although it now lacks its head and hands, this standing image of a Buddha is still impressive.</p> <p>When first approached by the Smithsonian’s Digitization Program Office, I thought this sculpture would be a perfect candidate for three-dimensional scanning. Indeed, with the development of the <a href="http://3d.si.edu" style="line-height: 20px; font-size: 13px" target="_blank">Smithsonian 3D Explorer</a>, produced with the assistance of Autodesk, and armed with a range of imaging techniques that I can use to enhance the clarity of the object surface, I am sure that I am able to see things in the 3D model that previous researchers could not through direct study of the object, rubbings, or photographs.<img alt="Cosmic Buddha rubbing" data-entity-type="" data-entity-uuid="" src="/sites/default/files/Rubbing_cropped.jpg" style="height: 300px; margin: 5px; width: 206px;" /></p> <p>What makes the sculpture truly remarkable is the dense decoration that covers its surface. When first carved in north China in the late sixth century, the scenes may have been embellished with paint, which would have made them easier to discern and understand. In more recent times, decades of study by a number of researchers in China, Japan, and the United States has identified the specific content of many of these scenes and linked them to the religious texts that were their inspiration. Most significantly, a series of scenes running from the neck to the feet on the front of the Buddha illustrates the Realms of Buddhist Existence, a conceptual map of the cosmos associated with Vairochana, the Cosmic Buddha, the presumed subject of the sculpture. Numerous questions remain, however, since some of the other units wrap around the figure making them more difficult to examine and decipher.</p> <div>The 3D model facilitates a more detailed mapping of the sculpture’s surface. The scan in the 3D Explorer is also a useful tool for sharing research, since source materials, related illustrations, and interpretation can be attached to relevant portions of the image through “hot spots.” Not only suitable for clarifying Buddhist content, the new tool also encourages fuller study of the composition of the narratives which reveal the amazing sophistication of Chinese story illustration and spatial illusion.</div> <p><img alt="Image of the Cosmic Buddha from the 3D Explorer" data-entity-type="" data-entity-uuid="" src="/sites/default/files/3D%20Scan_cropped.jpg" style="height: 215px; margin: 5px; width: 300px;" />Since the 3D Explorer website is very user friendly, I can easily continue adding interpretive content reflecting my on-going research conducted in association with Janet Douglas, a materials scientist formerly at the Freer|Sackler. We are also planning a symposium on the sculpture that will make use of the 3D Explorer. The research presented at the scholarly meeting will ultimately be added to the site to inspire new cycles of study of an object that deserves generations of examination and scholarship.</p> <p> </p> <p>J. Keith Wilson<br /><em>Curator of Ancient Chinese Art<br /><a href="http://www.asia.si.edu/" target="_blank">Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution</a></em></p> <p><strong>Buddha Vairochana (Pilushena) with the Realms of Existence</strong><br /> China, probably Henan province, Northern Qi dynasty, 550–77<br /> Limestone with traces of pigment<br /> Freer Gallery of Art<br /> Purchased for the Gallery on Christmas Eve 1923 from the Chinese dealer Shanfang Taku, Beijing<br /> F1923.15</p> </div> Tue, 13 May 2014 12:03:21 +0000 BeauchampJW 170 at https://dpo.si.edu We’re 3D Scanning The Nation’s T. rex! https://dpo.si.edu/blog/were-3d-scanning-nations-t-rex <span>We’re 3D Scanning The Nation’s T. rex!</span> <div class="field field--name-field-author field--type-string field--label-inline"> <div class="field__label">Author</div> <div class="field__item">Jon Blundell, DPO 3D Imaging</div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/users/beauchampjw" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">BeauchampJW</span></span> <span>Thu, 05/08/2014 - 14:23</span> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>On April 15, 2014 sixteen wooden crates containing the Nation’s T. rex arrived at the National Museum of Natural History from Montana. While the curators are carefully unpacking the crates, and performing a condition evaluation, the Smithsonian X 3D scanning team is making digital models of the bones. We are using handheld 3D scanners to capture high-resolution surface and color information from each bone. We’re scanning the entire T. rex, so it will take time—there are more than 200 bones and the T. rex requires careful handling.</p> <p><img alt="hand-held 3d scanner workflow diagram" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="293537bf-c167-431b-b247-1a0688204828" height="510" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/ScanningT.rex_.png" width="680" /></p> <p>There are three basic steps to creating 3D models from the T. rex fossils. 1) While the data is captured by the 3D scanner, it shows up on the computer screen in near real time - this helps us track the progress and ensure thorough coverage of the scan. 2) Next, software is used to align the scans, clean up the color and geometry information and 3) finally, a 3D model is created—an accurate replica of the object.</p> <p>What can you do with a 3D model? Models can be used for 3D printing in schools and provide new ways for the public to experience the Smithsonian through our online 3D Explorer (found at http://3d.si.edu/).  3D data also gives researchers new ways to analyze collection objects. The paleontologists will use 3D models of the bones to help put the T. rex back together. The new dinosaur exhibit will open in 2019, and in the meantime, visit us at <a href="http://3d.si.edu/" target="_blank"><strong>www.3D.si.edu.</strong></a></p> </div> Thu, 08 May 2014 18:23:19 +0000 BeauchampJW 167 at https://dpo.si.edu